KEBIJAKAN PIDANA KERAS BELUM TENTU CERDAS: EVALUASI KEBIJAKAN HUKUM PIDANA PEMERINTAHAN JOKO WIDODO 2014-2019

Choky R. Ramadhan

Abstract

Pemerintahan Joko Widodo (Jokowi) pada periode pertama (2014-2019) menrumuskan dan menjalankan beberapa kebijakan pidana dan penegakan hukum. Kebijakan-kebijakan tersebut dinilai cukup keras dan tegas, namun dapat meleset dari sasaran-sasaran jangka menengah (RPJMN) maupun cita-cita kepemimpinannya (Nawacita). Penilaian atas kebijakan tersebut dilandasi pada gagasan penanganan kejahatan secara cerdas (smart on crime) yang diusung pemerintahan Barrack Obama di Amerika Serikat (AS). Gagasan tersebut mengutamakan kebijakan pidana dan penegakan hukum pidana yang berbasis bukti, ilmu pengetahuan, dan mempertimbangkan ketersediaan sumber daya untuk memperoleh hasil yang optimal dan efisien. Evaluasi dengan menggunakan gagasan smart on crime dilakukan terbatas pada 3 (tiga) area kebijakan pidana pada pemerintahan Jokowi periode pertama. Ketiga area tersebut yaitu: (1) korupsi pada penegak hukum; (2) narkotika; (3) kekerasan seksual.

Keywords

Kebijakan Pidana; Penegakan Hukum; Penanganan Kejahatan yang Cerdas

Full Text:

PDF

References

Buku

Adler, Matthew. D. & Eric A. Posner. 2000. Cost-Benefit Analysis: Legal, Economic, and Philosophical Perspectives. The University of Chicago Press: Chicago.

Ashworth, Andrew. 2010. Sentencing and Criminal Justice 5th ed. Cambridge University Press: New York.

Eddyono, Supriyadi Widodo, Ahmad Sofian & Anugerah Rizki Akbari. 2016. Menguji Euforia Kebiri: Catatan Kritis atas Rencana Kebijakan Kebiri (Chemical Castration) Bagi Pelaku Kejahatan Seksual Anak di Indonesia, ICJR: Jakarta.

Garland, David. 2002. The Culture of Control: Crime and Social Order in Contemporary Society, Chicago University Press: Chicago

Deffain, Bruno, & T. Kirat (Ed.). 2001. Law and Economics in Civil Law Countries, Elsevier Science.

Gracia, Maria Apolinaria. 2018. Menggugat Tembak Mati Narkotika, LBH Masyarakat: Jakarta.

Krug, Etienne G. dkk. ed. 2002. World Report on Violence And Health, World Health Organization: Jenewa 2002),

Matthews, Roger. 2009. Doing Time, Palgrave Macmillan: London.

Ramadhan, Choky, Pengantar Analisis Ekonomi dalam Kebijakan Pidana di Indonesia, Institue for Criminal Justice Reform (ICJR), Jakarta, 2016,

Schneider, Friedrich, & Charles K. Rowley (Ed.). 2008. Readings in Public Choice and Constitutional Political Economy. Springer..

Sellin, Thorsten ed. 1967. Capital Punishment. Harper & Row: New York.

------ , Thorsten. 1980. The Penalty of Death. The SAGE Publication.

Sykes, Gresham. 2007. The Society of Captives: A Study of a Maximum Security Prison, Princeton University Press: New Jersey.

Petersilia, Joan, & Kevin R. Reitz. 2012. The Oxford Handbook of Sentencing and Corrections. Oxford University Press: New York.

Jurnal

Ahroni, Eyal dkk. “Justice at Any Cost? The Impact of Cost-Benefit Salience On Criminal Punishment Judgments” Behavioral Sciences & the Law, vol. 37, no. 1, 2019.

Becker, Gary S., & George J. Stigler. “Law Enforcement, Malfeasance, And Compensation of Enforcers.” Journal of Legal Studies, vol 3, no.1, 1974, Hlm 1–18.

Campbell, Michael C. “Politics, Prisons, and Law Enforcement: An Examination of the Emergence of ``Law and Order'' Politics in Texas.” Law & Society Review, vol. 45, no. 3, 2011, Hlm. 631-655.

Cornell, Agnes, & Anders Sundell. “Money Matters: The Role of Public Sector Wages In Corruption Prevention.” Public Administration, vol. 98, issue 1, 2020, Hlm. 244-260

Engdahl, Oskar. “The Role of Money in Economic Crime.” British Journal of Criminology, vol. 48, Issue 2, March 2008, Hlm. 154–170

Gans-Morse dkk. “Reducing Bureaucratic Corruption: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on What Works.” World Development, vol. 105, 2018, Hlm. 171–188.

Garland, David. “The Limits Of The Sovereign State : Strategies of Crime Control in Contemporary Society.” The British Journal of Criminology, vol. 36, no. 4, 1996, Hlm. 445–471.

Gooren, Louis J. “Ethical And Medical Considerations Of Androgen Deprivation Treatment Of Sex Offenders.” The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, vol 96, Issue 12, 2011, Hlm. 3628–3637.

Kebbell, Mark & Nina Westera. “Promoting Pre-Recorded Complainant Evidence in Rape Trials: Psychological And Practice Perspectives.” Criminal Law Journal, vol. 35, 2011, Hlm. 376- 385.

Kirchgässner, Gebhard. “Econometric Estimates of Deterrence of the Death Penalty: Facts or Ideology?” KYLOS: International Review for Social Sciences, vol. 64, issue 3, 2011, Hlm 448-478.

Lee, Joo Yong & Kang Su Cho. “Chemical Castration for Sexual Offenders: Physicians' Views.” Journal of Korean Medical Science, vol 28, no. 2, 2013, Hlm. 171–172.

Mackie, J.A.C. “The Commission of Four Report of Corruption.” Bulletin of Indonesian Economic Studies, vol 6, no. 3, 1970, Hlm. 87-88.

Obama, Barrack. “The President’s Role in Advancing Criminal Justice Reform.” Harvard Law Review, vol. 130, no 3, 2017, Hlm. 811-866.

Pollinsky, Mitchell & Steven Shavell. “The Economic Theory of Public Enforcement of Law.” Journal of Economic Literature, vol. 38, no. 1, Maret 2000 Hlm. 45-76.

Posner, Richard A. “An Economic Theory of the Criminal Law.” Columbia Law Review, vol. 85, no. 6, 1985, Hlm. 1193-1231

Radelet, Michael L., & Traci L. Lacock. “Do Executions Lower Homicide Rates: The Views of Leading Criminologists.” The Journal of Criminal Law & Criminology, vol. 99, no. 2, 2009, Hlm 489-508.

Ramadhan, Choky R. “Reforming Indonesian Rape Law: Adopting U.S. Rape Shield Law in Excluding Prejudicial Evidence.” Indonesian Law Review, vol 8, no 1, 2018, Hlm. 63-86.

-------------, Choky R. “Konvergensi Civil Law dan Common Law di Indonesia dalam Penemuan dan Pembentukan Hukum”. Mimbar Hukum, Edisi No. 2 Vol. 30, Juni 2018, Hlm. 213-229.

Skevington, Suzzane M., Keeley Sarah Gunson, & Kathryn Ann O’connell. “Introducing The WHOQOL-SRPB BREF: Developing A Short-Form Instrument For Assessing Spiritual, Religious And Personal Beliefs Within Quality Of Life.” Quality of Life Research, vol. 22, no. 5, 2013, Hlm. 1073-1083.

Suci, Eunike Sri Tyas dkk. “The Indonesia National Rehabilitation Movement: Where are we moving to?” Jurnal Teropong, vol 5, 2017, Hlm. 107-119. diakses di http://mappifhui.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/03/Teropong-Volume-5-Agustus-2016-Januari-2017.pdf

Thibaut, Florence dkk. “The World Federation Of Societies Of Biological Psychiatry (WFSBP) Guidelines For The Biological Treatment Of Paraphilias.” The World Journal of Biological Psychiatry, vol 11, issue 4, 2010, Hlm. 604–655.

Zerbe, Richard O. “The Legal Foundation of Cost-Benefit Analysis.” Charlestown Law Review, vol. 2, no. 1, 2007, Hlm. 93–184.

Zulaiha, Aida Ratna, & Sari Angraeni. “Menerapkan Biaya Sosial Korupsi sebagai Hukuman Finansial dalam Kasus Korupsi Kehutanan.” Jurnal Integritas, vol. 2, no. 1 Agustus 2016, Hlm 1-24.

Kertas Kerja (Working Paper)

Badan Perencanaan dan Pembangunan Nasional (Bappenas), Rencana Pembangunan Jangka Menengah Nasional (RPJMN) 2015-2019, 16 Agustus 2017, https://www.bappenas.go.id/id/data-dan-informasi-utama/dokumen-perencanaan-dan-pelaksanaan/dokumen-rencana-pembangunan-nasional/rpjp-2005-2025/rpjmn-2015-2019/, diakses 8 April 2020.

Foltz, J.D.; Opoku-Agyemang, K.A. “Do higher salaries lower petty corruption? A policy experiment on West Africa’s highways.” International Growth Centre (IGC), London, UK (2015), Hlm 1-49

Garvin, Meg, Alison Wilinson, & Sarah LeClair, Excluding Evidence Specific Sexual Acts between the Victim and Defendant under Rape Shield,VAW Bulletin (Sept. 2010): 2., https://law.lclark.edu/live/files/11816-excluding-evidence-of-specific-sexual-acts-between, diakses 1 Mei 2020.

Holder, Eric. “Introduction, United States Department of Justice.” The United States Attorney’s Bulletin: Smart on Crime I, January 2015 Volume 63 Number 1, Hlm. 1-w.

Wroblewski, Jonathan & Aaron A. Hoffman. “Budget Realities and Smart on Crime: Rebalancing Public Safety Spending to Reduce Crime in an Era of Governmental Austerity”, The United States Attorney’s Bulletin: Smart on Crime I, January 2015 Volume 63 Number 1, Hlm. 8-14

Pradiptyo, Rimawan, A Certain Uncertainty: Assessment of Court Decisions for Tackling Corruptions in Indonesia, Agustus 2011. CLEA 2009 Annual Meeting Paper, dapat diakses di SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=1480930

Pradiptyo, Rimawan, Does Corruption Pay in Indonesia? If so, Who are Benefited the Most?, Juli 2012, Diakses di SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=2107537

Roodman, David. “The Impacts of Incarceration on Crime.” Open Philanthropy Project 2017, https://blog.givewell.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/09/The-impacts-of-incarceration-on-crime-10.pdf, diakses 5 April 2020.

United States Department of Justice. “Smart on Crime: Reforming The Criminal Justice System For The 21st Century.” Agustus 2013, https://www.justice.gov/sites/default/files/ag/legacy/2013/08/12/smart-on-crime.pdf, diakses 10 April 2020.

United States Department of Justice. “Understanding DNA Evidence: A Guide for Victim Service Providers.” https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/bc000657.pdf, diakses 1 September 2020.

Weatherburn, Don. “What Causes Crime?, NSW Bureau of Crime Statistics and Research”, Februari 2001, https://www.bocsar.nsw.gov.au/Publications/CJB/cjb54.pdf, diakses 5 September 2020.

Laporan

Laporan Tahunan Kejaksaan RI Tahun 2016.

Laporan Tahunan Komisi Pemberantasan Korupsi (KPK) tahun 2016.

Peraturan Perundang-undangan

Undang-undang Republik Indonesia Nomor 31 tahun 1999 tentang Pemberantasan Tindak Pidana Korupsi

Undang-undang Republik Indonesia Nomor 20 tahun 2001 tentang Perubahan Atas Undang-Undang Nomor 31 Tahun 1999 Tentang Pemberantasan Tindak Pidana Korupsi

Undang-Undang Republik Indonesia Nomor 30 Tahun 2002 Tentang Komisi Pemberantasan Tindak Pidana Korupsi

Internet

Amnesty International, Death penalty in 2018: Facts and figures, 10 April 2019, https://www.amnesty.org/en/latest/news/2019/04/death-penalty-facts-and-figures-2018/, diakses 4 Februari 2020.

Chung, Ed, Smart on Crime: An Alternative to the Tough vs. Soft Debate, 12 Mei 2017, https://www.americanprogress.org/issues/criminal-justice/news/2017/05/12/432238/smart-crime-alternative-tough-vs-soft-debate/, diakses 10 April 2020.

Departemen Ilmu Hubungan Internasional Fakultas Ilmu Sosial dan Ilmu Politik Universitas Gadjah Mada, Membaca Wajah Indonesia Era Jokowi Lewat Kebijakan Hukuman Mati, 23 Maret 2017, http://hi.fisipol.ugm.ac.id/berita/membaca-wajah-indonesia-era-jokowi-lewat-kebijakan-hukuman-mati/, diakses 11 April 2020.

Direktorat Jenderal Pemasyarakatan, http://smslap.ditjenpas.go.id/public/krl/current/monthly/year/2014/month/5, diakses 5 Mei 2020.

Kadner, Phil, KADNER: Sexual Assault, Gary Dotson And Trial by Public Opinion, Chicago Sun Times, 17 November 2017, https://chicago.suntimes.com/2017/11/17/18375471/kadner-sexual-assault-gary-dotson-and-trial-by-public-opinion, diakses 1 September 2020

Kornadi, Atem, RUU Penghapusan Kekerasan Seksual: Refleksi Negara yang Abai terhadap Perlindungan Perempuan dan Anak, Jurnal Perempuan, 20 April 2016, https://www.jurnalperempuan.org/wacana-feminis/ruu-penghapusan-kekerasan-seksual-refleksi-negara-yang-abai-terhadap-perlindungan-perempuan-dan-anak, diakses 20 April 2020

Pugh, Jonathan, Why is chemical castration being used on sex offenders in some countries?, The Conversation, 16 Juni 2016, https://theconversation.com/why-is-chemical-castration-being-used-on-sex-offenders-in-some-countries-60979, diakses 10 Mei 2020.

Ramadhan, Choky R., Penjara kembali rusuh di Langkat dan Siak. Solusinya bukan bangun penjara baru tapi kurangi tahanan dan perbaiki manajemen penjara, The Conversation, 16 Juni 2019. https://theconversation.com/penjara-kembali-rusuh-di-langkat-dan-siak-solusinya-bukan-bangun-penjara-baru-tapi-kurangi-tahanan-dan-perbaiki-manajemen-penjara-118769, diakses 7 Mei 2020

-------, Choky R., Putusan Baiq Nuril: MA Abaikan Produk Hukumnya Sendiri yang Ingin Lindungi Perempuan di Pengadilan, The Conversation, 11 Juli 2019, https://theconversation.com/putusan-baiq-nuril-ma-abaikan-produk-hukumnya-sendiri-yang-ingin-lindungi-perempuan-di-pengadilan-120092, diakses 5 Mei 2020

-------, Choky R., Kontribusi DNA Forensik dalam Merevisi Penghukuman yang Salah, 24 Agustus 2020, https://www.hukumonline.com/berita/baca/lt5f43324f02b87/kontribusi-dna-forensik-dalam-merevisi-penghukuman-yang-salah-oleh--choky-r-ramadhan?page=3, diakses 1 September 2020.

Wardhani, Wulan Kusuma, Vonis Hukuman Mati Tak Hasilkan Efek Jera, Magdalene, 6 Mei 2020, https://magdalene.co/story/vonis-hukuman-mati-tak-hasilkan-efek-jera, diakses 5 Juni 2020.

Opini Koran

Ramadhan, Choky R. “Reformasi Penegakan Hukum Kekerasan Seksual”. Kompas 21 Juli 2016.

Ramadhan, Choky R. “Inefektivitas Penjara & Alternatif Pemidanaan”. Jawa Pos 11 Mei 2017.

Ramadhan, Choky R. “Retorika Penjeraan Narkotika, Kompas”. 27 Maret 2018.

Media Cetak dan Dalam Jaringan (Daring)

Affan, Heyder. “Densus anti-korupsi Polri akan 'menjadi ajang perseteruan dengan KPK'”. 13 Oktober 2017. https://www.bbc.com/indonesia/indonesia-41605950, diakses 7 April 2020.

Ali. “Ini Dia Visi Misi Lengkap Jokowi-Jusuf Kalla”. 21 Mei 2014. https://www.hukumonline.com/berita/baca/lt537c8b1b6c155/ini-dia-visi-misi-lengkap-jokowi-jusuf-kalla/, diakses 26 Oktober 2019.

Anna, Lusia Kus, Mengungkap Pelaku Kekerasan Seksual dengan Tes DNA, 27 Maret 2015, https://sains.kompas.com/read/2015/03/27/074500123/Mengungkap.Pelaku.Kekerasan.Seksual.dengan.Tes.DNA, diakses 1 September 2020

Ariffin, Eijas. “Is ASEAN Close to Abolishing the Death Penalty?”. 11 Oktober 2018. https://theaseanpost.com/article/asean-close-abolishing-death-penalty, diakses 19 Maret 2020.

Artharini, Isyana. “Instruksi Presiden Jokowi untuk menembak pengedar narkoba 'dikecam'.” BBC, 24 Juli 2017, https://www.bbc.com/indonesia/indonesia-40698883, diakses 20 Maret 2020.

Azanella, Luthfia Ayu. “Ini Daftar Oknum Jaksa yang Tertangkap Tangan KPK Sejak 2017”. 21 Agustus 2019. https://www.kompas.com/tren/read/2019/08/21/085644965/ini-daftar-oknum-jaksa-yang-tertangkap-tangan-kpk-sejak-2017?page=all., diakses 20 April 2020.

Aziz, Abdul. “Daftar Panjang Jaksa-Jaksa yang Ditangkap KPK”. 9 Juni 2017. https://tirto.id/cqnW, diakses 20 April 2020.

BBC News. “Eks Kalapas Sukamiskin Divonis Delapan Tahun Penjara Atas Pemberian Fasilitas 'Sel Mewah' Dan Mengizinkan Bisnis Untuk Napi Korupsi”. 8 April 2019. https://www.bbc.com/indonesia/indonesia-47854918. diakses 7 Mei 2020.

CNN Indonesia. “Eksekusi Mati Tak Tekan Narkoba, Jokowi Disebut Inkonsisten”. 11 April 2019, https://www.cnnindonesia.com/nasional/20190410195730-12-385137/eksekusi-mati-tak-tekan-narkoba-jokowi-disebut-inkonsisten, 15 Maret 2020.

Fasilitas 'Sel Mewah' Dan Mengizinkan Bisnis Untuk Napi Korupsi”. 8 April 2019, https://www.bbc.com/indonesia/indonesia-47854918, diakses 7 Mei 2020.

Dariyanto, Erwin.“Ini Profil Calon Kepala BIN Komjen Budi Gunawan”. 2 September 2016. https://news.detik.com/berita/d-3289442/ini-profil-calon-kepala-bin-komjen-budi-gunawan, diakses 10 Juni 2020

Fauzi, Gilang. “KPK: Calon Kapolri Budi Gunawan Tersangka Rekening Gendut”. 13 Januari 2015. https://www.cnnindonesia.com/nasional/20150113143519-12-24300/kpk-calon-kapolri-budi-gunawan-tersangka-rekening-gendut, diakses 5 Mei 2020.

Haryanto, Alexander. “PKNI Kritik Cara Pemerintah Jokowi Tangani Para Pengguna Napza”. 13 Februari 2018, https://tirto.id/pkni-kritik-cara-pemerintah-jokowi-tangani-para-pengguna-napza-cEKX, diakses 17 mei 2020.

Ibrahim, Gibran Maulana. “Kejagung Tolak Gabung ke Densus Antikorupsi, Ini Tanggapan Polri”. 11 September 2017. https://news.detik.com/berita/3638182/kejagung-tolak-gabung-ke-densus-antikorupsi-ini-tanggapan-polri, diakses 23 April 2020

Khabibi, Ikhwanul. “Ini Dia Paket Reformasi Hukum Tahap I Presiden Joko Widodo”. 11 Oktober 2016. https://news.detik.com/berita/d-3318263/ini-dia-paket-reformasi-hukum-tahap-i-presiden-joko-widodo”, diakses 15 September 2020.

Meilisa, Hilda. “Kecam Hukuman Kebiri, Komnas HAM Minta Jokowi Hapus Perpu”. 26 Agustus 2019. https://news.detik.com/berita-jawa-timur/d-4681758/kecam-hukuman-kebiri-komnas-ham-minta-jokowi-hapus-perpu, diakses 29 Maret 2020.

Mustholih. “Siswi SD di Semarang Diperkosa 21 Pemuda”. 30 Mei 2016. https://news.okezone.com/read/2016/05/30/512/1401583/siswi-sd-di-semarang-diperkosa-21-pemuda, diakses 8 Mei 2020.

Persada, Syailendra. “Putusan Pertama Hukuman Kebiri Kimia dan IDI yang Menolak”. 26 Agustus 2020, https://fokus.tempo.co/read/1240246/putusan-pertama-hukuman-kebiri-kimia-dan-idi-yang-menolak, diakses 29 Maret 2020.

Polycarpus, Rudy. “Presiden: Perppu Kebiri untuk Melindungi Anak dan Efek Jera”. 25 Mei 2016. https://mediaindonesia.com/read/detail/47267-presiden-perppu-kebiri-untuk-melindungi-anak-dan-efek-jera, diakses 9 Mei 2020.

Ramadhan, Bilal. “HM Prasetyo Keluhkan Minimnya Anggaran Kejaksaan Agung, Republika”. 22 Januari 2015. https://nasional.republika.co.id/berita/nikj85/hm-prasetyo-keluhkan-minimnya-anggaran-kejaksaan-agung, diakses 19 Maret 2020.

Widiastuti, Rina Menteri. “Yasonna Akan Tambah 14 Ribu Petugas Sipir Penjara”. 20 Desember 2017. https://nasional.tempo.co/read/1043957/menteri-yasonna-akan-tambah-14-ribu-petugas-sipir-penjara, diakses 8 Mei 2020.

Zulfikar, Muhammad. “Over Capacity Pemicu Utama Rusuh di Lapas”. 27 Maret 2016. https://www.tribunnews.com/nasional/2016/03/27/over-capacity-pemicu-utama-rusuh-di-lapas, diakses 30 April 2020.