PERSPEKTIF HUKUM INTERNASIONAL ATAS PENCEMARAN LAUT YANG BERASAL DARI DARAT DAN PRAKTEK PENANGANANNYA DI BEBERAPA NEGARA (INTERNATIONAL LAW PERSPECTIVE ON LAND–BASED SOURCES POLLUTION AND TREATMENT PRACTICES IN SEVERAL COUNTRIES)

Loura Hardjaloka

Abstract

Berdasarkan penelitian, 80% pencemaran laut internasional akibat pencemaran yang berasal
dari darat (Land-Based Sources Pollution/“LBSP”). LBSP merupakan pencemaran yang
diakibatkan aktivitas rumah tangga, industrial, pariwisata, dan pertanian sehingga
menghasilkan sampah plastik, nutrients, pestisida, logam berat, sedimen, dan limbah radioaktif
yang pada akhirnya melalui aliran air dapat mencemari air laut. Pencemaran akibat LBSP
dapat merusak ekosistem laut dan merugikan mata pencaharian masyarakat pesisir. Melihat
jumlah pencemaran dan dampak signifikan namun minim hukum internasional maka Negaranegara membuat dan menandatangani perjanjian multilateral, perjanjian regional, dan
perjanjian bilateral sehingga ada kerangka hukum yang lebih spesifik untuk menanggulangi
permasalahan LBSP. Disamping itu dalam menangani kasus LBSP, masing-masing Negara
memiliki praktek tersendiri untuk menangani dan menanggulangi LBSP seperti melalui
peraturan perundang-undangan dan mengajukan sengketa di tingkat internasional. Meskipun
demikian, jumlah perjanjian internasional yang ada saat ini sangat minim sehingga masih
banyak Negara yang harus melakukan perjanjian kerjasama sehingga dapat memaksimalkan
penanganan LBSP.

Keywords

pencemaran laut; LBSP; perjanjian; hukum internasional

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